Study Skills: Engagement and Retrieval

This post acts as an introduction to the webpage and is also the first link on that page.
It also complements a previous post on the same topic: Misconceptions about how students learn  – otherwise known as How to Study Hard and Still Fail.

Why might this post help make me be a better teacher?

  • Teaching students how to study more effectively at home should be a normal part of every teacher’s job description (but isn’t). The benefit of developing a student’s study skills is self-evident.
  • Many of the these skills also relate to how a student learns best in the classroom and so should form an intrinsic part of your teaching methodology.

Key Points

  1. Students don’t know how to study because nobody has ever shown them – and even if they have attended a study seminar, chances are that it didn’t make much difference because we teachers don’t follow up it with them.
  2. This is due in no small part to the fact that we don’t know what constitutes effective study.
  3. All study techniques are not equal
    One half hour of effective studying is much more beneficial than two or three hours of ineffective study.

Students don’t know how to study because nobody has ever shown them. Only we – their teachers – can help in this regard. Our first step is to familiarise ourselves with the knowledge. Knowing how students learn should dramatically alter our approach to our classroom teaching.

The fact that students don’t know how to study may come as a shock, but when you think about it it shouldn’t. After all, nobody has ever taken the time to show them what techniques are effective and just as importantly what techniques are ineffective.

So what constitutes ineffective study?

  1. Highlighting material
  2. Writing out notes from a textbook or copying from teachers’ notes
  3. Reading over material covered in class
  4. Looking at mindmaps
  5. Cramming the night before the exam
  6. Making flashcards

These are not completely ineffective (and some are slightly more beneficial than others) but by in large they should be avoided. Of the six techniques outlined above, writing out notes is the greatest scoundrel in that it takes an inordinate amount of time, whereas highlighting, though equally ineffective, at least doesn’t waste that much time. It doesn’t help that the student may well believe that he has a good grasp of the material after writing it out; the point is that he is much less likely to remember the material long term using this technique.

Having said that, if you are highlighting or writing out material as a first step in the learning process (i.e. with a view of going back over the material using the effective learning techniques outlined below) then that’s a different story.

So what constitutes effective study?
Answer: anything which involves engagement and/or retrieval

  1. Testing yourself (and following up in an appropriate manner)
  2. Teaching others
  3. And you need to have set specific targets (both short and long-term

The ideal way to go about testing yourself is to first read over the material to confirm that you understand it. Then answer as many questions as you can on the topic, whether they be from the book or from exam papers.

Now you have to go back and check the answers.

The purpose of the test is two-fold; it acts to highlight what you don’t know but also – and this is the key point – it is in the act of retrieving the information that it becomes more securely stored in the long term memory. In short, it’s all about retrieval.

Aside – how your brain stores information
Your brain is not an empty vessel into which you can pour and store information. In so far as it can be considered to be a vessel of any type it should be seen as being a leaky one. You could also make comparisons to the memory in a computer; it seems to store information in either its hard drive (long term memory) or RAM (short term memory). In both cases there is one critical difference between the computer’s memory and yours; yours is leaky. The challenge for students is to ensure that the information is stored as securely as possible in their long-term memory. So how can they do this? Two words: Engagement and Retrieval.

Why are some techniques ineffective?
The six ineffective techniques outlined above all fail simply because there is little if any engagement with the material. While this is obviously context dependent, writing out notes can often (but not always!) consist of simply transferring material from one page to another with very little thinking going on in the process. The same goes for most of the other techniques in this category.

Consider the following:
Think of how difficult it is to remember the names of a group of people you’ve just been introduced to in some social scene.
If it was just one new name (one item of information) then there’s a good chance that you might remember, but if the number is closer to ten then you have no chance. Why not?
Because the information has passed over you without you having any chance to engage with it.

Think of it from another perspective. Your brain can remember an incredible amount of information, but not an infinite amount. So it needs some signal to determine whether information it is currently exposed to (notation for Boyle’s Law or hair-colour of a passing student) needs to be remembered or not. What signal does it use?
Answer: Engagement.
The more you engage with the material the more the brain realises that this is not just some random factoid than should be discarded as quickly as possible. But what does the word ‘engagement’ mean? I think of it as anything that causes the brain to come out of its ‘Sleep Mode’. Hence testing yourself and teaching (or even better arguing) with others.

So this helps the brain store the information in the first place. But bearing in mind that the memory is a leaky vessel, how do we keep the information there?
Answer: Retrieval.
To go back to the analogy used above, if you’re at the party and were introduced to just one man then you may or may not be able to recall his name one minute later. If however you have  no subsequent dealings with him then you’re much less likely to remember the information a week later. Why not? Because the brain works on the (reasonable) assumption that if you haven’t recalled the information over a relatively long period of time then it’s probably not important. So how do you ensure that the brain keeps the information? By retrieving it every so often (revision tests are therefore ideal). If you’re retrieving it then you’re ‘telling’ your brain that this information is worth hanging on to.

When is the best time to retrieve the information?
The research seems to be still out on this one, but one strong possibility is that the best time for retrieval is when the information is just on the point of being lost (the old ‘it’s on the tip of my tongue’ feeling). Of course there’s no way of knowing when a student is at this point, but it’s not a bad rule of thumb to go by.

This explains why cramming is not an effective learning technique. It may well get you past the short chapter test which you have the following day, but because there was no engagement and no regular retrieval going on, the information isn’t likely to remain in the memory for long.

This of course can serve to open up a bigger debate: from a student’s perspective doing well on a short test without ever understanding the material is still a perfectly valid objective. The challenge is for us as teachers to persuade students of the futility of this. The phenomenon is most easily identified when you look at a student who averages 80% or 90% in class tests at Junior Cert level, but then bombs an end of year exam. Now you (and hopefully they) can understand why.

It’s worth noting that most of this relates to studying factual information. Studying a language or a practical skill does of course rely on lots of practice. But even here you could fall foul of some misconceptions. Practicing without engaging (or without getting feedback) is of limited use. So for example if you want to improve your typing speed, practice by itself will bring your speed up to a certain level but it will then plateau. To increase it further you need to engage with what you’re learning and this is where a typing program comes in.

Spacing and Interleaving
Two other important concepts when studying are Spacing and Interleaving.

When learning new material or new skills, spacing the learning episodes over large periods of time will improve the long-term retention.

If studying 3 subjects over one night, it’s much more effective to interleave them rather than studying subject 1 then subject 2 then subject 3 (which is the default but also ‘lazy’ way).

For more information on spacing and interleaving click on the links that I uploaded to the following webpage:

So how do I use this information in the classroom?
If your subject is fact-based then testing should be a regular feature of your classes. But you need to stress that the function of the test is not to come up with a percentage at the end (in fact this is actually likely to be counterproductive); it is to identify what is and is not known or understood, and also (possibly more importantly) the act of retrieval serves to store the self-same information more securely for the future. So rather than spending the first ten minutes of your class checking and correcting homework (see this link for my post on the dubious benefits of setting homework), and a better policy may be using this time to run a short quiz covering important points from the previous class or classes. Only you can ascertain the best way of doing this, but don’t be afraid to experiment and don’t expect to get it write first time or every time.

Once I became aware of the importance of engagement  in student learning (otherwise known as ‘deep processing’) it changed how I try and teach every single lesson of every single day.

I give a version of this post to students but include a series of questions at the end (it helps them to engage).

Ask and you shall receive


Fun revision quiz

I’m doing some spring-cleaning, so while it’s obviously the wrong time of the year for this, here is a nice idea for flipping the standard quiz format.

Give the answers to the quiz and tell the students to come up with the question.

I can’t remember where I stole these from, but they look like fun, particularly for Junior Cert students. It ticks lots of boxes; lateral thinking, group work where students work in pairs or small groups to argue over the correct question, etc.

Alternatively students could be asked to come up with their own answers (and questions) for a topic.

Anyway, we’ll try it next year and report back.

1. Iron, cobalt and nickel
Which elements are magnetic?
2. They repel each other
What do two north poles or two south poles do when they are near each other?
3. It lines up with the magnetic field
What does a magnetic compass do?
4. A region of space where a magnetic material experiences a force
What is a magnetic field?
5. Increasing the number of coils on an iron core
How could you increase the strength of an electromagnet?
6. Away from the north pole and towards the south pole
Which way does a compass needle point when near a magnet?
7. You end up with two smaller magnets
What happens when you break a magnet in half?

Do you know what it’s like to be a student with learning difficulties?

If you’re reading this as a teacher then the chances are that you were a good student in school. You probably did well in most of your exams and certainly well enough to get the required points to get to college and once there you managed to get your degree without too many repeat exams. It’s unlikely that you had or have any learning difficulties (not that many of the terms even existed way back then).

Let me make a bolder assertion. You probably didn’t even hang around with the ‘slow learners’. They had their own friends and you had yours. You weren’t enemies or anything; just moved in different circles and followed different life-paths.

Bottom line: you – like me – probably have no idea what it is to feel like a student who has a learning difficulty.
What must it be like to have an attention span that’s almost zero?
– to have organisational skills so poor that, with the best will in the world, you’re never going to be able to locate your homework in time for your teacher to acknowledge it?
– to know that whether or not you work hard for an upcoming exam the result may well be failure either way?
– to feel physically ill at the thought of upcoming end-of-year exams?

Something to ponder as the Summer exams approach.

As teachers we are very good at getting courses covered, and often that is (unfortunately) how students (and parents) judge us. But revision is an essential part of a student’s learning and it’s one we often leave to the students themselves. This may be okay for the very good students, but for many others, particularly those with learning difficulties, it’s quite likely that they could do with a helping-hand coming down the home straight.

This may well mean setting aside a class every week right from the very beginning of the year. It sounds radical but the exact amount of time spent and other details could vary from class to class and year to year.

Most schools will have just three weeks of teaching left. If revision is one of those things you’ve been meaning to get around to but keep putting off until you get that next chapter finished, maybe it’s time to call a halt now. If so the following may prove useful.

1. Inform students what is and is not going to be on the exam, along with the time and structure of the exam (often it’s as important, if not more so, to inform the parents of students, particularly those with organisational issues, so they can help the students at home).

2. Make sure the students take down this information in their homework journals or similar (again, the students who need to take it down most are also the ones least likely to do so). Maybe parents should be asked to sign a form to acknowledge that they know what is on the exam.

3. If you use notes/handouts then provide students with a list of what they should have. The issuing of notes suits some subjects (like Science) more than others – are there alternatives where notes aren’t suitable?

4. Homework for students is to locate these notes and organise them such that they can be found readily when they are needed.

5. Students will invariably be missing some notes; they next need to compile a list of what they are missing. For disorganised students
this may necessitate seeking assistance from a parent, SNA or even another highly-organised classmate.

6. This step will seem like a pain but ideally students would be furnished with replacement notes (alternatively could these be put
online, say on the school website, where they could be downloaded by the student at home?).

7. Create a revision schedule for the class and refer to it every class between now and Summer exams. Have pop quizzes based on the
nightly revision to act as an incentive for the students. Students can correct each others’ work so it’s no extra workload for the teacher.

8. To give a further incentive, these totals could act as a percentage of the final Summer mark. It doesn’t have to be a large percentage, and if you have a set of 10 scores for each student you don’t need to add them all up on a calculator; just throw your eye over them and guess what the average would be. If it’s only a small percentage of their final mark then it’s no big deal if you’re out by a little. The idea is to encourage weak students to do a little each night.

This is not an absolute template – different aspects will work to a greater or lesser extent with different subjects and teachers. But it is VERY important that we help these students, and as we all know, it’s the ones who are least organised who need help the most.

Organising revision
Students in the middle of a double-class devoted to sorting out class notes and worksheets

Leaving Cert Physics exam – final advice

Looking for a top grade?

Just one day to go.

Wondering what topics to concentrate on?

Consider the following:

Electromagnetic Induction has appeared on past exam papers on the following years:

2011 —

2010 —

2009 —

2008 no.8

2007 12 (c)

2006 no.11 {5/8 of a long question}

2005 12 (b)

2004 12 (c)

2003 12 (d)

2002 12 (c)

That’s right – it’s appeared every year from 2002 to 2008 but not for the last 3 years – don’t go into the exam without knowing it back to front and upside down. The document which contains all past questions on this topic together with the worked solutions can be found on the revision page of

How about The Electron?
Let’s take a look:

2011 —

2010 no.9

2009 no.8

2008 no.11{5/8 of a long question}

2007 —

2006 12 (d)

2005 12 (d)

2004 no.9

2003 no.9

2002 no.9

So most years it’s a full question, but hasn’t appeared last year at all. Same advice therefore – see all questions and solutions on the revision page of the website.

Particle Physics comes up every year – this year was the 75th anniversary of the Cockroft and Walton experiment – pay particular attention to past questions on this topic.

In fact for a full overview of all questions likely to appear this year (tomorrow!) you could do worse than check out the following:

If you want to download this document then the link is here

And remember – expect the unexpected. If something comes up that you haven’t seen before then just deal with it. Welcome to the real world!

And good luck with it 🙂

JC Science: Guide to Revising

A big problem with students who wish to do well in their exams is that they simply don’t know how much they have to know!

It’s a perfectly understandable complaint, and hopefully this will help.

Remember that for each chapter you will have to know:

  1. All definitions (see the notes I hand out in class)
  2. All experiments (whether mandatory or not)
  3. All maths problems (see separate guide to answering maths problems).
  4. Graph questions (see separate guide to answering graph questions).
  5. Any other theory

Get your friend/Mom/Dad/brother/sister to ask you the exam questions from the questions at the end of each chapter in my notes – all the solutions are there to check with.

When revising the Experiment questions don’t waste time writing them out fully. Sketch a quick diagram labelling all the main parts, and then write down one or two sentences summarising what you did.

You can go into more detail in the exam itself – this is just to check whether or not you can remember the experiment.

Get into the habit of marking/highlighting what you don’t understand, and then either ask a friend to explain it to you, or ask me.

Make sure you don’t leave it and hope that it won’t come up in the exam!

Most students who get A-grades in the Leaving Cert do this a lot. I don’t think it’s just a coincidence!

Try to revise one chapter of science per night.

BTW, this took time to put together so don’t be afraid to say thank you; you would be surprised how much a few small words could be appreciated (by all teachers, not just me!).

Good luck!

Junior Cert Science revision: the experiments

With the Junior Cert Science exam just around the corner this resource will come too late for most, but for what it’s worth I am highlighting it here anyway. With over 45 experiments needing to be written up for Coursework A the sheer volume can be quite intimidating, particularly for those of us who are struggling with the subject in the first place.

That’s why I’ve put together a very short summary of all the experiments on the revision page of thephysicsteacher. Each set (Physics, Chemistry and Biology) can fit onto one double-sided page (well almost – need to work on reducting Physics) and if students are looking for a more indepth description they can go to the original notes, which also contain every question which has ever appeared on an exam paper (at Higher and Ordinary level) along the accompanying solutions.

Hope it’s of use to some of you out there.

And remember – real Science bears little or no resemblance to the rubbish you have to learn for this exam, so try not to be put off by the subject.

Leaving Cert Physics: Definitions from Past Papers

This word document has now been updated; not only does it now include all definitions from the 2009 paper but it also includes all definitions from Ordinary Level papers from 2002 – 2009.
The document can be accessed from the revision page of

The answer to each question is also included; hopefully this allows for non-physics friends/parents/brothers/sisters to ask the questions and check the answers as you go along.

It is notable that in some instances the ordinary level definitions are actually more difficult ( and at times rather obtuse) than the higher level questions. I have noticed something similar in the Junior Cert Science papers over the years. I suspect that while many of us write in to exams commission to comment on the higher level paper, few of us ever bother to analyse the ordinary level paper in the same detail and so these anomalies go unchecked.
Anyways, as always the document is on the leaving cert physics revision page.
Hope it’s useful.

Junior Cert Science – a guide to answering Maths questions

Answering maths questions is a skill which intimidates many students at Junior Cert level.
the revsion page of now offers a guide to answering maths questions in the exam. It includes a full set of maths questions and solutions taken from past-papers at higher and ordinary level.

Hopefully seeing it laid out in this fashion will encourage students to see (i) the importance of learning the formulae, and (ii) how straightforward the questions actually are once the formulae are known. There is a general belief that all formulae are in the new log-tables and that therefore nothing needs to be learnt off, whereas in fact only half of the formulae are there. The revision-guide includes a reference to these and where to find them. It also includes a set of practice questions.

No password required etc. Hope someone finds them useful. As always all I ask is that you follow the suggestion on the top of the first page in relation to saving paper.

Junior Cert Science – a guide to answering exam questions

The ability to draw and interpret graphs is a skill which gets tested every year in the Junior Cert exam.
However I have yet to see a lesson-plan on this;  usually each graph is dealt with separately in its corresponding chapter. Which is why the revsion page of now offers a guide to answering graph questions in the exam. It includes a  full set of graph questions taken from past-papers at higher and ordinary level.

Each graph is explained and solutions provided, including an emphasis on the importance of knowing the formula for calculating the slope, the significance of a line going through all data points and the origin, and the trick to drawing a ‘best-fit’ line (this is not on the syllabus but is only one more example of something not on the syllabus coming up on the exam paper).

There is no password required to access the resource, no log-in process, no funny handshake, no ‘you show me yours and I’ll show you mine’. As always, feel free to take it, adjust it and make it your own – life is too short to do otherwise. Make no mistake – this will be very useful to most students. All I ask is that you follow the suggestion on the top of the first page and photocopy A3 – A4 (this puts two pages onto one) and then use front and back of the page  to save paper.

There are a couple of other resources on the revision page and one or two more which should be completed and uploaded in the near future – stay tuned.