Section A counts for 30% of your overall mark and is the easiest section to pick up full marks. There are about 24 experiments but many of them are minor variations on each other. Stop wasting time trying to predict which ones will come up and just learn them all. Take one or two per night and make sure you can answer every question on each experiment from past papers. In particular you need to use the following as a checklist for each experiment.
(i) Draw a fully labelled diagram which includes all essential apparatus (have you included the apparatus necessary to obtain values for both variables?).
(ii) Be able to state how the two sets of values were obtained (this is a very common question).
(iii) Describe what needs to be adjusted to give a new set of data
(iv) Write down the relevant equation if there is one associated with the experiment.
(v) Be able to state how the data in the table will need to be adjusted.
(vi) Know what goes on each axis.
(vii) Know how to use the slope of the graph to obtain the desired answer.
(viii) Be able to list three sources of error/precautions.
- The graph question is usually well worth doing.
- Learn the following line off by heart as the most common source of error: “parallax error associated with using a metre stick to measure length / using a voltmeter to measure volts etc”.
- Make sure you understand the concept of percentage error; it’s the reason we try to ensure that what we’re measuring is as large as possible.
- There is a subtle difference between a precaution and a source of error – know the distinction.
- When asked for a precaution do not suggest something which would result in giving no result, e.g. “Make sure the power-supply is turned on” (a precaution is something which could throw out the results rather than something which negates the whole experiment).
- To verify Joule’s Law does not involve a Joulemeter
- To verify the Conservation of Momentum – the second trolley must be at rest.
- To verify the laws of equilibrium – the phrase ‘spring balance’ is not acceptable for ‘newton-metre’.
- To measure the Focal length of a Concave Mirror or a Convex Lens.
Note that when given the data for various values of u and v, you must calculate a value for f in each case, and only then find an average. (As opposed to averaging the u’s and the v’s and then just using the formula once to calculate f). Apparently the relevant phrase is “an average of an average is not an average”.
I have a document here which containts exam questions on every experiment which has ever appeared on a past paper from 2002 to 2010 (Higher Level and Ordinary Level) – this should be your bible for Section A over the coming weeks. Solutions are also included.
Now get back to work.
More to come.